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朱 子 家 訓

来源:信阳市朱氏根亲文化研究会 | 录入时间:2012-10-4

    君之所貴者,仁也。臣之所貴者,忠也。父之所貴者,慈也。子之所貴者,孝也。兄之所貴者,友也。弟之所貴者,恭也。夫之所貴者,和也。婦之所貴者,柔也。事師長貴乎禮也,交朋友貴乎信也。見老者,敬之;見幼者,愛之。有德者,年雖下於我,我必尊之;不肖者,年雖高於我,我必遠之。慎勿談人之短,切莫矜己之長。仇者以義解之,怨者以直報之,隨所遇而安之。人有小過,含容而忍之;人有大過,以理而諭之。勿以善小而不為,勿以惡小而為之。人有惡,則掩之;人有善,則揚之。處世無私仇,治家無私法。勿損人而利己,勿妒賢而嫉能。勿稱忿而報橫逆,勿非禮而害物命。見不義之財勿取,遇合理之事則從。詩書不可不讀,禮義不可不知。子孫不可不教,僮僕不可不恤。斯文不可不敬,患難不可不扶。守我之份者,禮也;聽我之命者,天也。人能如是,天必相之。此乃日用常行之道,若衣服之於身體,飲食之於口腹,不可一日無也,可不慎哉!

    【译文】当国君所珍贵的是“仁”,爱护人民。当人臣所珍贵的是“忠”,忠君爱国。当父亲所珍贵的是“慈”,疼爱子女。当儿子所珍贵的是“孝”,孝顺父母。当兄长所珍贵的是“友”,爱护弟弟。当弟弟所珍贵的是“恭”,尊敬兄长。当丈夫所珍贵的是“和”,对妻子和睦。当妻子所珍贵的是“柔”,对丈夫温顺。侍奉师长要有礼貌,交朋友应当重视信用。遇见老人要尊敬,遇见小孩要爱护。有德行的人,即使年纪比我小,我一定尊敬他。品行不端的人,即使年纪比我大,我一定远离他。不要随便议论别人的缺点;切莫夸耀自己的长处。对有仇隙的人,用讲事实摆道理的办法来解除仇隙。对埋怨自己的人,用坦诚正直的态度来对待他。不论是得意或顺意或困难逆境,都要平静安详,不动感情。别人有小过失,要谅解容忍!别人有大错误,要按道理劝导帮助他。不要因为是细小的好事就不去做,不要因为是细小的坏事就去做。别人做了坏事,应该帮助他改过,不要宣扬他的恶行。别人做了好事,应该多加表扬。待人办事没有私人仇怨,治理家务不要另立私法。不要做损人利己的事,不要妒忌贤才和嫉视有能力的人。不要声言忿愤对待蛮不讲理的人,不要违反正当事理而随便伤害人和动物的生命。不要接受不义的财物,遇到合理的事物要拥护。不可不勤读诗书,不可不懂得礼义。子孙一定要教育,童仆一定要怜恤。一定要尊敬有德行有学识的人,一定要扶助有困难的人。这些都是做人应该懂得的道理,每个人尽本分去做才符合“礼”的标准。这样做也就完成天地万物赋予我们的使命,顺乎“天命”的道理法则。

Family Precepts by Zhu Xi

King should care about his people and people should be loyal to their king. Parents should love their children and children should show piety to their parents. Seniors should love juniors among brothers and sisters and juniors should respect their seniors. Husband should be kind to his wife and wife should be gentle to her husband. Observe the proprieties while waiting on teachers and keep your promise when making friends. Respect the old and take care of the young. Show reverence to the sainted even if they are younger but stay away from the wicked even if they are older. Never gossip about others and never flaunt your strength. Take hatred morally, take complaints sincerely and take things as they come. Pardon those who made small mistakes and reason with those who committed big blunders. Do not fail to do good even if it is small and do not engage in evil even if it is small. Do not make public others’s evil acts and do praise people for their good deeds. Have no private enmity when dealing with others and have no private laws when keeping order in family. Do not reap profits at the expense of others and do not be jealous and envious of the capable. Do not be irrational out of anger and do not harm others cruelly. Never accept ill-gotten money but comply with reasonable things. Read Confucius earnestly to have a sense of proprieties. Educate children well and take pity on servants. Respect learned people and help those who are in trouble. Act to your own duty and bow to the inevitable. God bless those who abide by the above-mentioned which are everyday dos and donts, just like clothes and food to us, indispensable to our daily life. So we should take these principles seriously.
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